You are advised to contact your doctor or clinic around 4-8 weeks before your trip to check whether you need any vaccinations and to get their professional medical advice regarding travel to Tanzania.
To help prevent diarrhoea, avoid tap water – drink only bottled water and use bottled water for tooth brushing, and avoid ice made with tap water – and only eat fruit or vegetables that are cooked or can be peeled. To help avoid heatstroke, drink plenty of bottled water/fluids, and keep out of the midday sun.
There is a risk of malaria in all areas of Tanzania and Zanzibar - check with your doctor about suitable antimalarial tablets. Dengue fever can also be transmitted via mosquito bites. Try to avoid mosquito bites wherever possible - wear loose long-sleeved clothing and trousers, and use a repellent on clothing and exposed skin.
Tsetse flies are found throughout most of Tanzania's Northern and Southern Parks, especially in wooded areas. There have been some cases of sleeping sickness occurring after a tsetse fly bite, although these are mainly amongst farmers/locals who have repeated exposure to bites. However, the fly can still deliver a painful bite, so it is advisable to take necessary precautions - don't wear dark colours, especially black and blue (including denim), wear long-sleeved clothing/trousers, and don't walk through bushes during the hottest part of the day.
Tanzania is not listed as a yellow fever endemic country, however, in accordance with International Health Regulations, Tanzania requires all travellers over one year of age to present a yellow fever vaccination certificate on arrival if (a) they are arriving from a yellow fever risk country; (b) they have been in transit longer than 12 hours at the airport of a yellow fever risk country; (c) they have left the airport whilst on transit in a yellow fever risk country. These countries include Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda.
PLEASE NOTE: Although Tanzania is not listed as a Yellow Fever endemic country, Zanzibar immigration officials MAY ask to see Yellow Fever vaccination certificates or exemption certificates upon arrival from the Tanzania mainland. We would therefore suggest that if your holiday includes both mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar, each traveller considers getting/travelling with a Yellow Fever certificate to avoid any complications upon arrival at Zanzibar.